TECHNOLOGY OF BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM DISTILLERY SPENT WASH
Today, considering the problems of anthropogenic impact on the environment and depletion of natural resources, the development of technological schemes that are the basis for the creation of technologies for the waste processing with the simultaneous receipt of alternative energy sources is relevant.
The alcohol industry has a problem with the utilization of distillery spent wash (DSW), which is formed in large quantities in the process of alcohol production. The use of anaerobic fermentation will allow not only to clear highly concentrated wastewater but also to obtain biogas. The problem of using anaerobic fermentation of pure form of DSW lies in its low pH values, which makes it impossible for fermentation processes and insufficient content of nitrogen compounds to be necessary for the development of microorganisms-destructors and methane producers. Unlike the investigated methods, where chemicals are used to neutralize pH and provide nutrients, we propose to carry out the process of DSW co-fermentation with a poultry manure.
The purpose of the work is to develop a technological scheme for the purification of highly concentrated distillery wastewater with the simultaneous production of biogas.
The proposed technological scheme consists of two stages of fermentation, which allows a high yield of biogas at the expense of a balanced content of nutrients and a dry organic matter content in the first fermenter and stabilizes the pH at the level of 7,0±0,5. In order to achieve the required degree of purification of highly concentrated distillery wastewater (DSW) and the maximum conversion of pollutants into biogas, fermentation of the liquid fraction, after separation of the solid residue, is carried out in a second fermenter.
The rational parameters of the anaerobic fermentation of DSW for obtaining the maximum biogas yield are established: the ratio for dry organic matter of wastewater /DSW /poultry manure – 0.2: 1: 7, the concentration of dry organic matter in the first fermenter - up to 10%, temperature – 40 ± 2 0С, stirring rate – 100 rpm, pH=7,0±0,5.
With the use of the given technological scheme, the output of biogas is 380±20 cm3 /g of dry organic matter, the content of methane in biogas – 70±2%. The COD of water after the solid phase removal after the second fermenter is 500±20 mg O2 /dm3.
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