PROBLEMS OF RELIABILITY OF PHOTOELECTRIC COMPONENTS OF SOLAR BATTERIES
One of the urgent tasks of increasing the efficiency and reliability of renewable energy sources such as solar cells is to seek and develop technologies for protecting their components from electrical and thermal overloads in order to increase service life and prevent unusual (in particular fire) situations.
In this paper, the understanding of the causes of these «hot spots» and modern methods and means of their prevention are analyzed.
In the article, the mechanism of formation of «hot spots», connected with the internal structure of solar panels is considered. «Hot spots» with or without thermal breakdown can lead to degradation and destruction of FE elements.
The analysis of methods for preventing the appearance of «hot spots» has been carried out. Today, the main areas of development of methods and means of preventing the appearance of «hot spots» are the following:
- improvement of well-known circuit-based technologies based on by-pass diodes, which include active bypass switches;
- use of photocells that have characteristics of a return test with low voltage amplitude or protection from open loop;
- detection and active protection based on technologies for tracking the point of maximum power of solar cells.
A thorough analysis of the main research results in these areas, which has been achieved recently, has been carried out.
The prospect of application of elements of functional electronics, in particular, polymeric self-repairing safety fuses of the «Polyswith» type, is solved for the purpose of increasing the reliability of the devices for a transformation of solar radiation energy. Recent experimental studies have made it possible to establish that such security elements do not affect the operation of solar cells in their operating temperature range and are functionally suitable for the electrical isolation of local areas and components of high-temperature solar cells.
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