3D SIMULATION OF HYDROMECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SMALL HYDROPOWER PLANTS
The power equipment of small hydropower plants, namely hydro turbines, must operate reliably in continuous operation, have a high efficiency and be able to maintain high steady power over a longer life cycle. As a result of continuous improvement of structures, a number of types of hydroturbines have been created the best in these requirements. However, the workflows of hydroturbines remain under-researched, taking into account the possible natural and technical impacts. It is also quite difficult to take into account the sudden change in river flow velocity, the presence of vortices at the outlet of the turbine, etc.
In this work are explored the possibilities of using modern software for simulation of operating modes and energy characteristics of small hydroelectric power plants using experimental and reference data.
There are different types of characteristics of hydromachines, which are obtained during laboratory tests and graphically depict the dependence of some operating parameters on others. The most widespread in the hydropower industry are the given universal characteristics, which are built for single values of certain values: D = 1m and H = 1m. Modeling of non-stationary electromechanical processes of a hydropower unit is based on the solution of the differential equation of motion of components using the mechanical characteristics of a turbine, generator and electrical load. The use of a set of nonlinear characteristics in the process of solving the differential equation of motion requires their representation by a continuous surface, which can be effectively implemented with the help of three-dimensional 3D graphs and approximate spline functions included in the Matlab software package.
In this article are provides an example code and a description of the main commands that enable the construction and analysis of various hydromechanical and power characteristics of units for conducting studies of the operating modes of small hydroelectric power plants. Finding the quantitative values of the curves formed at the intersection of two surfaces makes it possible to study and substantiate the laws of control of hydropower turbines, taking into account the natural features of the river flow, which could not be done so far. Ref. 14, fig. 9.
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