COMPUTATION OF AN EXPEDIENT AMOUNT OF DEMAND THE UNDER FREQUENCY LOAD SHEDDING AND ITS PLACEMENT IN THE POWER SYSTEM WITH DISTRIBUTED SOURCES OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY

Keywords: under frequency load shedding, renewable energy sources, distributed generation sources, placement of relays UFLS.

Abstract

Under Frequency Load Shedding (UFLS) is one of the main tools widely used in power systems to prevent frequency dropping too much. The UFLS is able to disconnect some consumers in milliseconds, and in seconds to stop the frequency drop in areas of the power system, which were formed as a result of a cascade accident to disconnect lines and generators.

To support a temporary balance of active power in emergency in power system must be provided an amount of Demand for discon-nection. Therefore, the National Transmission System Operators (TSO) or the Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity establish the so-called Total Load Shed (TLS). Most often in the standards and policy of power systems, this indicator is calculated for total peak demand and recommended to place in the power system evenly geographically. This mode of placing TLS does not take into account the structure of power system, daily and seasonal changes in generation capacity and consumption, despite the fact that standards and policy the TSO require it to be taken into account. A mathematical model  and a method are propposed determining total load shedding (TLS) the  Under Frequency Load Shedding (UFLS) Power System and its placement. TLS is determined  taking into account distributed (at consumer nodes) renewable energy sources, possible options for emergency separation of the power system, requirements of international standards and policy the functioning of Power Systems. The model is an integer (binary) linear programming problem. Ooptimal relays are selected for UFLS based on the categorization criterion located in predetermined nodes of the Power System whose operation ensures the power balance in emergency separation areas. The electrical parameters of the normal modes, as well as the efficiency of the optimal amout of Demand load shedding and distribution its in the network are determined and verified (detected) in a series of a priori and a posteriori calculations on exact mathematical models of the software products of the electric power industry recognized in the world practice. The distribution of the amout of Demand load shedding in case of an emergency situation increases the likelihood of balancing a larger number of emergency areas of the power system. Ref. 9, tabl. 3, fig. 2.

Author Biographies

V. Lytvynchuk, Institute of Renewable Energy of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 02094, 20А Hnata Khotkevycha St., Kyiv, Ukraine.

litvinchuk.pngAuthor information: Research Associate of the Institute of Renewable Energy of the NAS of Ukraine
Education: Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, specialty power plants
Research area: mathematical modeling of power systems and distribution networks, emergency modes of operation
Publications: 18

M. Kaplin, Institute of General Energy of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 03150, 172 Antonovycha St., Kyiv, Ukraine.

kaplin.pngAuthor information: Leading research fellow, Department of fuel bases development optimization, Institute of General Energy, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Education: Taras Shevchenko Kyiv State University, Faculty of Physics, «Physicist. Theoretical physics. Teacher»
Research area: economic and mathematical models in power system simulation, optimization methods, fuel and energy balances
Publications: 56

O. Karmazin, Institute of Renewable Energy of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 02094, 20А Hnata Khotkevycha St., Kyiv, Ukraine.

karmazin.png

Author information: senior researcher of Department of Complex Power Systems of the Institute of Renewable Energy of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Education: National Technical University Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute, Physical-Technical Faculty, «Non-Conventional Sources of Energy»
Research area: operation and parallel operation of various types of renewable energy sources in the grid
Publications: 29

References

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2. Yan R., Masood N.A., Saha T.K., Bai F., Gu H. The anatomy of the 2016 South Australia blackout: a catastrophic event in a high renewable network. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. Sept. 2018. Vol. 33. Issue 5. Pp. 5374–5388.
[in English].
3. Newman D.E., Carreras B.A., Lynch V.E., Dobson Ia.D, Newman D.E. Exploring Complex Systems Aspects of Blackout Risk and Mitigation. IEEE Transactions on Reliability. March 2011. Vol. 60. Issue 1. Pp. 134–143.
[in English].
























4. Informatsiini ta analitychni materialy. [Information and analytical materials]. Derzhavna inspektsiia z ekspluatatsii elektrychnykh stantsii i merezh. Kyiv. 2009. 528 р. [in Ukrainian].
5. ENTSO-E. Continental Europe Operation Handbook Policy 5: Emergency Operations. [Electronic resource]. URL: www.entsoe.eu (Applying date: 13.03.2021). [in English].
6. Technical background for the Low Frequency Demand Disconnection requirements. ENTSO-E. November 2014. [Electronic resource].
URL: https://eepublicdownloads.entsoe.eu/clean-documents/Network%20codes%20documents/NC%20ER/141215_Technical_background_for_LFDD.pdf
(Applying date: 13.03.2021). [in English].
7. Lu M., ZainalAbidin W.A.W., Masri T., Lee D.H.A., Chen S. Under-Frequency Load Shedding (UFLS) Schemes –A Survey. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research. Vol. 11. 2016. № 1. Рp. 456–472. [in English].
8. Pravyla zastosuvannia systemnoi protyavariinoi av-tomatyky zapobihannia ta likvidatsii nebezpechnoho znyzhennia abo pidvyshchennia chastoty v enerhosystemakh. [Rules for the application of system emergency automation to prevent and eliminate dangerous reduction or increase of frequency in power systems]. [Electronic resource].
URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/z1177-03#Text
(Applying date: 13.03.2021). [in Ukrainian].
9. Lytvynchuk V.A. Peredbachennia avarii z defitsytom aktyv-noi potuzhnosti v enerhosystemakh. [Anticipation of accidents with a deficit of active power in power systems]. Enerhetyka ta elekt-ryfikatsiia. 2004. No. 6. Рр. 29–31 [in Ukrainian].

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Published
2021-03-30
How to Cite
Lytvynchuk, V., Kaplin, M., & Karmazin, O. (2021). COMPUTATION OF AN EXPEDIENT AMOUNT OF DEMAND THE UNDER FREQUENCY LOAD SHEDDING AND ITS PLACEMENT IN THE POWER SYSTEM WITH DISTRIBUTED SOURCES OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY. Vidnovluvana Energetika, (1(64), 18-30. https://doi.org/10.36296/1819-8058.2021.1(64).18-30
Section
Complex Problems of Power Systems Based on Renewable Energy Sources