INVESTIGATION OF ENERGY PARAMETERS OF BIOMATERIAL CONVERSION PROCESS IN CLOSED FERMENTATION CHAMBER
Fermentation of bio-raw materials in closed fermentation chambers is one of the promising methods of composting production, which is developing intensively . However, one of the unresolved issues in the fermentation of bio-based substrates in closed chambers is the low efficiency associated with energy losses. In order to study the energy parameters of the fermentation process of bio raw materials, the design of a closed fermentation chamber was developed and presented. It is established that the temperature parameters at each of the fermentation phases of the substrate are an important factor influencing the efficiency of the entire compost production. It is experimentally determined that the optimal temperatures at each of the fermentation phases are: the phase of heating the substrate - up to 20 ° C; mesophilic phase - from 20 to 42 °C; thermophilic phase - from 42 to 65 °C; ripening phase - from 65 °C to ambient temperature. Providing the specified temperature regime at each of the fermentation phases allows to make the composting process manageable and to obtain high quality composts in accordance with biotechnological norms. It has been experimentally investigated that most energy is lost due to convection in the thermophilic phase of composting. The highest values of the convective heat transfer coefficient were 1.6… 1.7 W/(m2 · °С) at the process temperature equal to 61… 62 °С and took place at 108… 132 hours of the composting process. At the 132nd hour of the process, the value of the heat transfer coefficient was 8.5 W per kilogram of organic matter of the substrate, and the total amount of heat released from a kilogram of organic matter of the substrate reached 2 MJ / kg. Although the internal energy of the substrate increased sharply during the thermophilic phase of composting of raw materials, only 5% of this energy was used to meet the energy needs of the process. Analysis of process parameters shows that about 95% of the heat produced during composting is lost through convection, thermal radiation and during aeration of the substrate with air. These losses can be reduced by developing appropriate thermal support: thermal insulation of the outer surfaces of the chambers, the use of heaters. Ref. 8, fig. 4.
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