PROSPECTS FOR APPLICATION OF HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGIES FOR AUTONOMOUS POWER COMPLEXES BASED ON RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES
The article analyzes publications using hydrogen technologies aimed at attracting renewable energy sources to the infrastructure of energy technology complexes, namely, for autonomous power supply of small consumers in remote areas. The potential for the use of solar and wind energy in Ukraine is high enough for widespread introduction into energy systems. When operating autonomous power complexes based on renewable energy sources, using solar and wind energy as sources, emergency situations are very likely due to the interruption of power supply due to the variability of energy supply or emergency failure of individual elements of the power complex. Therefore, in order to ensure uninterrupted power supply to an autonomous private consumer, it is necessary to provide for additional energy supply equalization systems. The use of technology for converting energy from primary sources using an electrolysis plant, a metal hydride hydrogen storage system and a fuel cell will not only solve the problem of smoothing the uneven energy supply from renewable energy sources, but also reduce the environmental burden on the environment of Ukraine. The analysis of the existing types of electrolyzers showed that hydrogen technologies implemented in electrolysis plants developed at the Institute of Mechanical Engineering A.N. Podgorny NAS of Ukraine allow the production and storage of hydrogen under high pressure (up to 20 MPa), which excludes the use of compressor technology. The use of hydrogen in fuel cells makes it possible to create efficient systems of autonomous power supply for private consumers. The most promising for autonomous consumers are power plants with a capacity of 1 kW to 20 kW based on low-temperature alkaline fuel cells, which are characterized by high efficiency, environmental friendliness and noiseless operation. The analysis of publications showed that to provide power to fuel cells, the most compact, safe and environmentally friendly way is to use reusable metal hydride batteries of high-purity hydrogen as part of an energy complex that meets the requirements for the placement of autonomous power supply systems. Ref. 31, table 3, fig. 5.
2. BP Statistical Review of World Energy. 68th edition. 2019. р. 62. [Electronic resource]. URL: https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/business-sites/en/global/corporate/pdfs/energy-economics/statistical-review/bp-stats-review-2019-full-report.pdf. . [in English].
3. IEA report, «Renewables 2019: global status report». REN 21. 2020. 336 р. ISBN 978-3-9818911-7-1. [in English].
4. Enevoldsen P., Sovacool B., Tambo T . Collaborate, involve, or defend? A critical stakeholder assessment and strategy for the Danish hydrogen electrolysis industry. International journal of hydrogen energy. 2014. Vol. 39. Рp. 20879–20887. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2014.10.035. [in English].
5. Samaniegoa J., Alija F., Sanz S., Valmaseda C., Frechoso F. Economic and technical analysis of a hybrid wind fuel cell. Renewable Energy. 2008. Vol. 33. Рp. 839–845. [in English].
6. Cardenas R., Pena R., Asher G., Clare J. Power smoothing in wind generation systems using a sensor less vector controlled induction machine driving a flywheel. IEEE Trans. Energy Convers. 2004. Vol. 19, Рp. 206–216. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.2003.816605. [in English].
7. Valverde-Isorna L., Ali D., Hogg D., Abdel-Wahab M. Modelling the performance of wind–hydrogen energy systems: Case study the Hydrogen Office in Scotland/UK. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2016. Vol. 53. Рp. 1313–1332. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.08.044. [in English].
8. Douak M., Settou N. Estimation of hydrogen production using wind energy in Algeria. Energy Procedia. 2015. Vol. 74. Рp. 981–990. [in English].
9. Enevoldsen P., Sovacool B. K. Integrating power systems for remote island energy supply: Lessons from Mykines, FaroeIslands. Renewable Energy. 2016. Vol. 85. Рp. 642–648. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2015.06.065. [in English].
10. Greiner J., Korpås M., Holen A. A Norwegian case study on the production of hydrogenf rom wind power, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2007. Vol. 32. Рp. 1500–1507. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2006.10.030. [in English].
11. Solomin E., Kirpichnikova I., Amerkhanov R., Korobatov D., Lutovats M., Martyanov A. Wind-hydrogen standal oneuninterrupted power supply plant forall-climate application. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2019. Vol. 44. № 7. Рp. 3433–3449. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.12.001. [in English].
12. Eichman J., Townsend A., Melaina M. Economic Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies Participating in California Electricity Markets. NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Technical Report NREL/TP-5400-65856. 2016. 31 р. doi: https://doi.org/10.2172/1239543. [in English].
13. Reuß M., Grube T., Langemann M., Calnan S., Robinius M., Schlatmann R., Rau U., Stolten D. Solar hydrogen production: a bottom-up analysis of different photovoltaic–electrolysis pathways. Sustainable Energy Fuels. 2019. Vol. 3. Pp. 801–813. doi:https://doi.org/10.1039/C9SE00007K. [in English].
14. Chang W. J., Lee K.-H., Ha H., Jin K., Kim G., Hwang S.-T., Lee H., Ahn S.-W., Yoon W., Seo H., Hong J.S., Go Y. K., Ha J.-I., Nam K.T. Design principle and loss engineering for photovoltaic–electrolysis cell system. ACS Omega. 2017. Vol. 2. No. 3. Pp 1009–1018.
doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.7b00012. [in English].
15. Reza Akhtari M., Baneshi M. Techno-economic assessment and optimization of a hybrid renewable co-supply of electricity, heat and hydrogen system to enhance performance by recovering excess electricity for a large energy consumer. Energy Conversion and Management. 2019. Vol. 188. Pp. 131–141. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2019.03.067.
16. Iordache I.,Bouzek K., Paidar M., Stehlík K., Töpler J., Stygar M., Dąbrowa J., Brylewski T., Stefanescu I., Iordache M., Schitea D., Grigoriev S.A., Fateev V.N., Zgonnik V. The hydrogen context and vulnerabilities in the central and Eastern European countries. International journal of hydrogen energy. 2019. Vol. 44. No. 35. Pp. 19036–19054. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.08.128. [in English].
17. Matsevytyi Y., Chorna N., Shevchenko A. Development of a Perspective Metal Hydride Energy Accumulation System Based on Fuel Cells for Wind Energetics. Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2019. Vol. 22. No. 4. Рр. 48–52. doi: https://doi.org/10.15407/pmach2019.04.048. [in English].
18. Hamburg D. Yu. Hydrogen: properties, production, storage, transportation and application. M. Chemistry. 1989. 672 p. [in Russian].
19. Shevchenko A.A. Creation of autonomous and network energy-technological complexes with a hydrogen storage of energy. Scientific and Applied Journal Vidnovluvana energetika. 2020. Vol. 61 (2). Рp 18–27.
20. Avramenko A.M., Shevchenko A.A., Chorna N.A., Kotenko A.L. Application of highly efficient hydrogen generation and storage systems for autonomous energy supply. Naukovyi Visnyk Natsionalnoho Hirnychoho Universytetu. 2021. No. 3. Рp. 69–74. https://doi.org/10.33271/nvngu/2021-3/069. [in English].
21. Solovey V.V., Zipunnikov N.N., Shevchenko A.A. Study of the efficiency of electrode materials in electrolysis systems with a separate cycle of gas generation. Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2015. Vol. 18 (2). Pp. 72–76. URL: http://journals.uran.ua/jme/article/view/46689. [in Russian].
22. Ma Z., Eichman J., Kurtz J. Fuel Cell Back up Power System for Grid-Service and Micro-Grid in Telecommunication Applications. ASME 12th International Conference on Energy Sustainability. (June 24–28, 2018, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, USA). 2018. 9 p. doi: https://doi.org/10.1115/ES2018-7184. [in English].
23. Chitsazana A, Monajjemib M. Increasing the efficiency Proton exchange membrane (PEMFC) & other fuel cells through multi graphene layers including polymer membrane electrolyte. French-Ukrainian Journal of Chemistry. 2020. Vol. 8. No. 1. Рp. 95–107. doi: https://doi.org/10.17721/fujcV8I1P95-107. [in English].
24. Solovey V.V., Shevchenko A.A., Zipunnikov M.M., Kotenko A.L., Khiem N.T., Tri B.D., Hai T.T. Development of high pressure membraneless alkaline electrolyzer. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy.
doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2021.01.209. [in English].
25. Wang P., Kang X.-d. Hydrogen-richboron-containing materials for hydrogen storage. Dalton Transactions, 2008. No. 40. Рp. 5400–5413. doi: https://doi.org/10.1039/B807162D. [in English].
26. Solovey V.V., Ivanovsky A.I., Chorna N.A., Shevchenko A.A. Energy-saving technologies of hydrogen generation and energy-technological processing. Compressor. and energy. mechanical engineering. 2010. No. 2(20). Pp. 21–24.
27. Solovey V.V., Chorna N.A., Koshelnik O.V. Development of scientific and technical principles for the creation of heat-using metal hydride systems. Energy saving. Energy. Energy audit. 2011. No. 7(89). Pp. 67–73. [in Ukrainian].
28. Steward D., Saur G., Penev M., Ramsden T. Lifecycle Cost Analysis of Hydrogen Versus Other Technologies for Electrical Energy Storage. Technical Report NREL/TP-560-46719. 2009. doi: https:// doi.org /10.2172/968186. [in English].
29. Matsevytyi Yu.M., Solovey V.V., Chorna N.A. Improving the efficiency of metal hydride elements of heat-using installations. Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2006. Vol. 9. No. 2. Pp. 85–93. [in Ukrainian].
30. Chorna N.A., Hanchyn V.V. Modeling Heat and Mass Exchange Processes in Metal-hydride Installations. Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2018. Vol. 21(4). Рp. 63–70. doi: https://doi.org/10.15407/pmach2018.04.063. [in English].
31. Chorna N.A., Ganchin V.V. Use of mathematical modeling to improve the mass and dimensions of metal hydride plants. Mathematical methods and physical and mechanical fields. 2019. Vol. 2. No. 3. Рp. 159–167. [in Ukrainian].