ANALYSIS OF THE CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SEASONAL GEOTHERMAL ENERGY STORAGE USED IN SOLAR DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS

Keywords: renewable energy, heating, seasonal storage, geothermal energy, central solar water heating

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to analyze the application of seasonal geothermal energy storage (SGES), also known as seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) or underground thermal energy storage (UTES), in solar district heating systems (SDHS). Such systems are designated in the article as SDHS-SGES, which store heat from solar collectors in hot months for space heating use when needed, including during winter months.

The classification of SDHS-STES was made and the possible choice of a STES solution was analyzed. From the economical point of view, the best solution is the usage of pit thermal energy storage (PTES) systems. As for other options, they either cost more than PTES or they require some very special environment to install them. In order to show how much consumers could be supplied by SDHS-STES, there were shown some examples.

With regard to the introduction of SDHS-STES, among the factors that contributed to their widespread use were: lower cost of solar collectors, high prices for fossil fuels, the exist of district heating systems, lowering the temperature regime in district heating. However, in Ukraine, at present, the implementation of SDHS-STES can be significantly complicated due to the large number of district heating (DH) systems in a very neglected state.

Since SDHS-SGES is a relatively new type of DH systems, the cost of heat from them is not yet an established value, as well as the cost of the systems themselves. Due to constant improvement, development of new solutions and increasing experience in the implementation of new systems, the cost of such system has been constantly decreasing over the past decades. Therefore, the work considers the current state of research on what are the directions for reducing the cost of SDHS-SGES and what conditions are necessary for the implementation of SDHS-SGES.

As shown by the conducted economic analysis, with an increase in volume, the cost of the thermal energy storage significantly decreases, which makes it possible to justify the use of DH systems in the case of a high density of heat consumption. Ref. 45, table. 1, fig. 2.

Author Biography

O. Lysak, Institute of Renewable Energy, NAS of Ukraine 02094, 20A Hnata Khotkevycha Street, Kyiv, Ukraine

lysak.pngAuthor information: chief technologist at the Institute for Renewable Energy of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Education: graduated from Kyiv National University of Construction and Architecture in 2011 with a degree on heat & gas supply and ventilation.
Research area: renewable energy sources, geothermal energy, heat storage systems.
Publications: more than 20.

References

1. Rämä M., Wahlroos M. Introduction of new decentralised renewable heat supply in an existing district heating system. Energy. 2018. Vol. 154. Pp. 68–79. [in English].
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2018.03.105
2. Shah S.K., Aye L., Rismanchi B. Seasonal thermal energy storage system for cold climate zones: A review of recent developments. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2018. Vol. 97. Pp. 38–49. [in English].
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.08.025
3. Tschopp D. et al. Large-scale solar thermal systems in leading countries: A review and comparative study of Denmark, China, Germany and Austria. Appl. Energy. 2020. Vol. 270. P. 114997. [in English].
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.114997
4. Net Zero by 2050. A Roadmap for the Global Energy Sector [Electronic resource]. URL: https://iea.blob.core.windows.net/assets/beceb956-0dcf-4d73-89fe-1310e3046d68/NetZeroby2050-ARoadmapfortheGlobalEnergySector_CORR.pdf
(Applying date: 26.07.2021). [in English].
5. Salvia M. et al. Will climate mitigation ambitions lead to carbon neutrality? An analysis of the local-level plans of 327 cities in the EU. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2021. Vol. 135. P. 110253. [in English].
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2020.110253
6. Al-Mamoori A. et al. Carbon Capture and Utilization Update. Energy Technol. 2017. Vol. 5. No. 6. Pp. 834–849.
[in English]. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ente.201600747
7. Biello D. The Carbon Capture Fallacy. Sci. Am. 2015. Vol. 314. No. 1. Pp. 58–65. [in English].
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0116-58
8. Lysak O.V. Analiz systemy tsentralnoho teplopostachannia za vykorystannia sezonnoho heotermalnoho akumuliuvannia v kombinatsii z systemoiu vyrobnytstva ta spozhyvannia vodniu [Analysis of the district heating system with the seasonal thermal energy storage system together with the system of hydrogen production and utilisation]. Vidnovliuvana enerhetyka. 2020. No. 3. Pp. 70–88. [in Ukrainian].
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36296/1819-8058.2020.3(62).70-88
9. IEA SHC Task 52: Solar Thermal and Energy Economy in Urban Environments : TECHNOLOGY AND DEMONSTRATORS Technical Report Subtask C – Part C1: Classification and benchmarking of solar thermal systems in urban environments [Electronic resource]. URL: https://task52.iea-shc.org/Data/Sites/1/publications/IEA-SHC-Task52-STC1-Classification-and-Benchmarking_v02.pdf (Applying date: 26.07.2021). [in English].
10. Yang T. et al. Seasonal thermal energy storage: A techno-economic literature review. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2021. Vol. 139. P. 110732. [in English].
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2021.110732
11. Morozov Yu.P. Dobycha geotermalnyh resursov i akkumulirovanie teploty v podzemnyh gorizontah: monografiya. [Production of geothermal resources and accumulation of heat in underground horizons: monograph]. Kyiv. Naukova dumka. 2017. 197 p. ISBN 978-966-00-1553-1 [in Russian]
12. Morozov Yu.P., Barylo A.A. Obgruntuvannia metodyky vyznachennia teplovoho potentsialu heotermichnykh plastovykh pokladiv [Substantiation of the method of determination of thermal potential of geothermal layer deposits]. Vidnovluvana energetika. 2021. No. 1(64). Pp. 81–86. [in Ukrainian].
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36296/1819-8058.2021.1(64).81-86
13. Morozov et al Enerhetychna efektyvnist vykorystannia pershykh vid poverkhni vodonosnykh horyzontiv dlia teplo- i khladopostachannia [Energy efficiency of the shallow aquifers utilization for the district heating and cooling]. Vidnovliuvana enerhetyka. 2019. No. 2. Pp. 70–78. [in Ukrainian]
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36296/1819-8058.2019.2(57).70-78
14. Tian Z. et al. Large-scale solar district heating plants in Danish smart thermal grid: Developments and recent trends. Energy Convers. Manag. 2019. Vol. 189. Pp. 67–80. [in English].
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2019.03.071
15. Rezaie B., Reddy B. V., Rosen M.A. Assessment of the Thermal Energy Storage in Friedrichshafen District Energy Systems . Energy Procedia. 2017. Vol. 116. Pp. 91–105.
[in English]. DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2017.05.058
16. Mesquita L. et al. Drake Landing Solar Community: 10 Years of Operation. Proceedings of SWC2017/SHC2017. Freiburg. Germany: International Solar Energy Society. 2017. Pp. 1–12. [in English].
DOI: https://doi.org/10.18086/swc.2017.06.09
17. Ommen T., Markussen W.B., Elmegaard B. Lowering district heating temperatures – Impact to system performance in current and future Danish energy scenarios. Energy. 2016. Vol. 94. Pp. 273–291. [in English].
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2015.10.063
18. Copenhagen District Heating System. [Electronic resource]. URL: https://www.districtenergyaward.org /wp-content/uploads/2012/10/Copenhagen_Denmark-District_Energy_Climate_Award.pdf (Applying date: 26.07.2021). [in English].
19. Regulation and planning of district heating in Denmark. Danish Energy Agency. 2016. [Electronic resource]. URL: https://ens.dk/sites/ens.dk/files/Globalcooperation/regulation_and_planning_of_district_heating_in_ denmark.pdf (Applying date: 26.07.2021). [in English].
20. Nußbicker-Lux J. et al. Monitoring results from german central solar heating plants with seasonal thermal energy storage. EFFSTOCK 2009. Stockholm. Sweden. June 14–17 2009. [in English].
21. Keil C. et al. Application of customized absorption heat pumps for utilization of low-grade heat sources. Appl. Therm. Eng. 2008. Vol. 28. Is. 16. Pp. 2070–2076. [in English]. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2008.04.012
22. Sibbitt B. et al. The Performance of a High Solar Fraction Seasonal Storage District Heating System – Five Years of Operation. Energy Procedia. 2012. Vol. 30. Pp. 856–865. [in English].DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2012.11.097
23. Karasu H., Dincer I. Life cycle assessment of integrated thermal energy storage systems in buildings: A case study in Canada. Energy Build. 2020. Vol. 217. P. 109940. [in English]. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2020.109940
24. Andersen P.D., Bødker L., Jensen M.V. Large Thermal Energy Storage at Marstal District Heating. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013. [Electronic resource]. URL: https://www.cfms-sols.org/sites/default/files/Actes/3351-3354.pdf (Applying date: 26.07.2021). [in English].
25. 10,000 INSULATING LID SOLUTION FOR PTES, DENMARK. [Electronic resource].
URL: https://www.aalborgcsp.com/projects/10000-insulating-lid-solution-for-ptes-denmark/ [in English]. (Applying date: 26.07.2021)
26. Schmidt T., Müller-Steinhagen H. The Central Solar Heating Plant with Aquifer Thermal Energy Store in Rostock - Results after four years of operation. EuroSun 2004 – The 5th ISES Europe Solar Conference. 20–23 June 2004. Freiburg. Germany. 2004. [in English].
27. Vprovadzhennia avtonomnoho indyvidualnoho opalennia v malykh mistakh Ukrainy yak optymalnyi sposib vyrishennia problem u komunalnii sferi. Dosvid mista Zhmerynka. [Introduction of autonomous individual heating in small towns of Ukraine as an optimal way to solve problems in the communal sphere. The experience of the city of Zhmerynka]. Nova Tema. 2007. No. 4. Pp. 37–39. [in Ukrainian].
28. Yak Nikopol. Marhanets ta Pokrov pozbulysia tsentralizovanoho opalennia. [How Nikopol, Marhanets and Pokrov got rid of district heating]. [Electronic resource]. URL: https://www.epravda.com.ua/publications/2017/11/16/631216/ (Applying date: 26.07.2021). [in Ukrainian].
29. Korhutlova L.P., Fomenko O.S. Perspektyva rozvytku skhemy teplopostachannia m. Kamianets-Podilskyi. [Prospects for the development of the heat supply scheme in Kamyanets-Podilsky]. Nova tema. 2011. No. 1. Pp. 28–31. [in Ukrainian].
30. Krut O.A., Bileсky V.S. Coal-water slurry fuel: current status and prospects. [Vodovuhilne palyvo: stan problemy i perspektyvy vykorystannia]. Visnyk of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. 2013. No. 8. Pp. 58–65. [in Ukrainian].
31. Decentralized heating in Ukraine: potential and ways of implementation. [Detsentralizovane opalennia v Ukraini: potentsial ta shliakhy vprovadzhennia]. [Electronic resource]. URL: https://www.minregion.gov.ua/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Detsentralizovane-opalennya.-Potentsial-ta-shlyahi-vprovadzhennya.pdf (Applying date: 26.07.2021). [in Ukrainian].
32. Oliinyk S. The transition to autonomous heating: "thermal separatism" continues. [Perekhid na avtonomne opalennia: “teplovyi separatyzm” tryvaie]. [Electronic resource]. URL: https://ua-energy.org/uk/posts/perekhid-na-avtonomne-opalennia-teplovyi-separatyzm-tryvaie
(Applying date: 26.07.2021). [in Ukrainian].
33. The Future Homes Standard: changes to Part L and Part F of the Building Regulations for new dwellings. [Electronic resource]. URL: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/956094/Government_response_to_Future_Homes_Standard_consultation.pdf (Applying date: 26.07.2021). [in English].
34. Euro exchange rate as of June 24, 2021. [Kurs yevro stanom na 24.06.2021]. [Electronic resource].
URL: https://index.minfin.com.ua/ua/exchange/archive/nbu/curr/2021-06-24/ (Applying date: 26.07.2021). [in Ukrainian].
35. Renaldi R., Friedrich D. Techno-economic analysis of a solar district heating system with seasonal thermal storage in the UK. Appl. Energy. 2019. Vol. 236. Pp. 388–400. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.11.030 [in English].
36. Semple L., Carriveau R., Ting D.S.-K. A techno-economic analysis of seasonal thermal energy storage for greenhouse applications. Energy Build. 2017. Vol. 154.
Pp. 175–187. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2017.08.065 [in English].
37. Salvestroni M. et al. Design of a solar district heating system with seasonal storage in Italy. Appl. Therm. Eng. 2021. P. 117438. DOI : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2021.117438 [in English].
38. Spitler J. et al. Preliminary intermodel comparison of ground heat exchanger simulation models Proceedings of 11th International Conference on Thermal Energy Storage. Effstock 2009. Stockholm. Sweden. June 14–17. 2009. [Електронний ресурс]. URL: https://hvac.okstate.edu/sites/default/files/pubs/papers/2009/01-Spitler_et_al_2009.pdf (Applying date: 26.07.2021). [in English].
39. Cui P. et al. Simulation Modelling and Design Optimization of Vertical Ground Heat Exchanger-GEOSTAR Program. Procedia Eng. 2015. Vol. 121. Pp. 906–914. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2015.09.048 [in English].
40. Epp B. Seasonal pit heat storage: Cost benchmark of 30 EUR/m3 [Electronic resource]. URL: https://www.solarthermalworld.org/news/seasonal-pit-heat-storage-cost-benchmark-30-eurm3. (Applying date: 26.07.2021). [in English].
41. Kubiński K., Szabłowski Ł. Dynamic model of solar heating plant with seasonal thermal energy storage. Renew. Energy. 2020. Vol. 145. Pp. 2025–2033.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2019.07.120 [in English].
42. Giraud L., Paulus C., Baviere R. Modeling of Solar District Heating: A Comparison Between TRNSYS and MODELICA. Proceedings of the EuroSun 2014 Conference. Freiburg. Germany. International Solar Energy Society. 2015. Pp. 1–11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18086/eurosun.2014.19.06 [in English].
43. Task 45 Large Systems Seasonal Borehole Thermal Energy Storage – Guidelines for design & construction. IEA-SHC TECH SHEET 45.B.3.1 [Electronic resource]. URL: https://task45.iea-shc.org/data/sites/1/publications/IEA-SHC-T45.B.3.1-TECH-Seasonal-storages-Borehole-Guidelines.pdf (Applying date: 26.07.2021). [in English].
44. Task 55 Large Solar Heating & Cooling Systems Seasonal pit heat storages – Guidelines for materials & construction. [Electronic resource]. URL: https://task55.iea-shc.org/Data/Sites/1/publications/IEA-SHC-T55-C-D.2-FACT-SHEET-Guidelines-seasonal-storages.pdf (Applying date: 26.07.2021). [in English].
45. Quintana H.J., Kummert M. Optimized control strategies for solar district heating systems. J. Build. Perform. Simul. 2015. Vol. 8. No. 2. Pp. 79–96. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19401493.2013.876448
[in English].

Abstract views: 30
PDF Downloads: 22
Published
2021-09-30
How to Cite
Lysak, O. (2021). ANALYSIS OF THE CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SEASONAL GEOTHERMAL ENERGY STORAGE USED IN SOLAR DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS. Vidnovluvana Energetika, (3(66), 72-87. https://doi.org/10.36296/1819-8058.2021.3(66).72-87