Keywords: water consumption, hydroturbine, efficiency, power, spline, universal characteristic, speed


Theoretical and methodological provisions for determining the energy efficiency of loading modes of low-power turbines of propeller and radial-axial types at variable water flow rates due to environmental restrictions on the use of river runoff for electricity generation. Indicators of energy efficiency were the values ​​of efficiency and mechanical power of the turbine. The research was performed using the laws of similarity of modes of operation of hydraulic machines and mathematical description of the sets of functional dependencies of the universal characteristics of the hydroturbine by two-parameter cubic spline functions. A mathematical model of loading modes of operation of hydraulic turbines at variable flow rates and speeds has been developed to take into account the simultaneous change of both operating parameters. The model is presented in the system of relative units of measurement in relation to nominal values ​​of parameters, which provides opportunities for comparative analysis of the properties of hydraulic turbines of different design. The functional dependences of the efficiency and power of turbines on variable water flow rates for cases of constant speed and its variable value, which ensures the achievement of maximum energy efficiency of the loading mode, have been studied. It is established that the use of variable speed for propeller-type turbines significantly expands the range of possible changes in water consumption and increases the energy performance. However, the use of variable speed for radial-axial turbines does not significantly affect its energy performance at variable water flow rates. The prospects of using low-pressure radial-axial turbines in small hydropower plants in the presence of environmental restrictions on the use of river runoff for electricity generation are substantiated. Bibl. 22, fig. 6.


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