IMPACT OF THE LOAD OF DISTRIBUTION NETWORK ON THE VOLTAGE INCREASE AT THE POINTOF CONNECTION OF PV INVERTER
The reasons for PV plant over-voltages in the electrical distribution grid caused by the impact of energy consumption drop compared to PV generation are considered. The over-voltages beyond the maximum allowable values at the point of common connection (PCC) is a very important factor, because it leads to automatic disconnection of PV inverters from the distribution grid and interruption of power supplying. To analyze this factor, an equivalent dual-feed scheme (substation and PV inverter) is used. This circuit with reverse power flow includes the following serial components: inverter - cable connection - step-up transformer - equivalent load distribution line - transformer substation - high-voltage network. The power load was localized in a certain node of the distribution line and therefore the equivalent circuit was reduced to three node substitution schemes: “PV plant – consumption node – substation”. In the simulation process, different ratios of network consumption levels and PV generation were analyzed, as well as different load points in the radial distribution line. As shown by the calculations of the power system with dual power supply and variable consumption, the influence of the consumption level under fixed generation significantly affects the increase or decrease of voltage in PCC. The impact of energy consumption drop under constant PV generation level and fixed settings the on-load tap-changer in substation leads to an increase in PCC voltage, and this increasing greater the more the more equivalent total impedance of the grid equipment (distribution line and step-up transformer) and of the connecting cable between the inverter and the step-up transformer.
A. Hirsch, Y. Parag, J. Guerrero. “Microgrids: A review of technologies, key drivers, and outstanding issues”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, V. 90, P. 402–411, 2018
M. Rezkallah, A. Chandra, B. Singh and S. Singh. “Microgrid: Configurations, Control and Applications”, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, V. 10, No. 2, P. 1290–1302, 2019.
A. G. Abokhalil, A. B. Awan, & A.-R. Al-Qawasmi, “Comparative study of passive and active islanding detection methods for PV grid-connected systems”, Sustainability, V. 10, No. 6, 1798, 2018, https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061798.
S. Dutta, P. K. Sadhu, M. J. B. Reddy, D. K. Mohanta, “Shifting of research trends in islanding detection method - A comprehensive survey”, Springer Open, Protection and Control of Modern Power Systems. 2018, doi: 10.1186/s41601-017-0075-8.
M.-S. Kim, R. Haider, G.-J. Cho et al. “Comprehensive Review of Islanding Detection Methods for Distributed Generation Systems”, Energies, , 12, 837, 2019. doi:10.3390/en12050837.
Y. A. Elshrief, D. H. Helmi, S. Abd-Elhaleem et al. “Fast and accurate islanding detection technique for microgrid connected to photovoltaic system”, Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, V. 14, No. 1, P. 210-221, 2021, doi: 10.1080/16878507.2021.1923913.
M. Y. Worku, M. A. Hassan, L. S. Maraaba et al. “Islanding Detection Methods for Microgrids: A Comprehensive Review”, Mathematics, , V. 9, Article 3174, P.1-2, 2021.
IEEE Recommended Practice for Utility Interface of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems, USA, IEEE Std 929-2000. https://standards.ieee.org/standard/929-2000.html
IEEE Standard for Interconnection and Interoperability of Distributed Energy Resources with Associated
Electric Power Systems Interfaces, USA, IEEE Std 1547–2018.
A. Gayevskii, V. Bodnyak, and A. Gayevskaya, “Analiz monitoringovykh dannykh o rabote PV-invertorov, podklyuchennykh k raspredelitel'noy seti”, Al'ternativnaya energetika i ekologiya (in Russian). 2018, № 31-36, с. 279-284.
O. Hayevsʹkyi, H. Hayevsʹka, V. Bodnyak, and M. Konovalov, “Prychyny pidvyshchennya napruhy u vuzli pidklyuchennya FES do rozpodilʹnoyi merezhi ta invertorne rehulyuvannya napruhy”, Vidnovlyuvana enerhetyka. (in Ukrainian), №1, 2022, DOI: https://doi.org/10.36296/1819-8058.2022.1(68)828
F.J. Pazos. Operational experience and field tests on islanding events caused by large photovoltaic plants. 21st International Conference on Electricity Distribution. Frankfurt, 6-9 June 2011, Paper 0184. http://www.cired.net/publications/cired2011/part1/papers/CIRED2011_0184_final.pdf.
A. Hoke, A. Nelson, B. Miller, S. Chakraborty, “Experimental Evaluation of PV Inverter Anti-Islanding with Grid Support Functions in Multi-Inverter Island Scenarios”, NREL Technical Report, NREL/TP-5D00-66732, July 2016, 69 p.
Copyright (c) 2022 Vidnovliuvana Energetyka
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.