SOLAR HEAT SUPPLY: VARIETIES OF CONVERSION SYSTEMS, EFFICIENCY
The use of solar energy in current conditions is one of the most affordable and popular energy-saving technologies that allows to significantly increase the efficiency of heat supply due to the fact that the energy obtained from the Sun is the cheapest and technologically available. The work considers the issue of using solar heat supply systems for heating needs of private houses, office premises and industrial premises. A classification of existing types of solar collectors is provided. A general analysis of the construction, principle of operation and composition of flat and vacuum solar collectors is given. The main thermophysical parameters that determine the efficiency of the solar system are substantiated. An analysis of the efficiency of flat and vacuum solar collectors for heating water in the hot water supply and heating system of buildings was performed. A patent search and systematized innovative solutions that increase the efficiency of the solar system have been conducted. General shortcomings of all heliosystem designs and directions of efforts of inventors are established. It is concluded that in order to improve the efficiency of solar heat conversion systems, work algorithms and high-quality adjustment of control controllers and their use by regulators must play a significant role. Their main function is to control the thermophysical parameters of the heliosystem and automatically make a decision on the control of electronic valves in order to ensure the optimal temperature of the coolant in all circuits. It is justified that further research into the implementation of multi-circuit systems for obtaining thermal energy from solar radiation in combination with other sources of obtaining thermal energy and an effective system for accumulating the received heat has a perspective.
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